# Lecture 7: Joint Distribution

STA237: Probability, Statistics, and Data Analysis I

Michael Jongho Moon

PhD Student, DoSS, University of Toronto

Monday, June 5, 2023

# Example: My coffee shop with muffins

• Recall $E[R] < 0$ which isn’t the best business
• Michael starts selling muffins as well
• Let $M$ be the number of muffins sold per day

$P\left(\left\{D=5\right\} \cap \left\{M=5\right\}\right)$

Each point represents a probability associated with a pair of values.

How about $P\left(\left\{D\le 5\right\} \cap \left\{M\le 5\right\}\right)$?

$P\left(\left\{D\le 5\right\} \cap \left\{M\le 5\right\}\right)$

You will add the probabilities represented by all points in the range.

What if you were only interested in $D\le 5$?

$P\left(D\le 5\right)$

You will include all possible values of $M$ while restricting $D\le 5$.

This is an example of a joint distribution of two discrete random variables.

The two random variables arise from the same sample space and the joint distribution describe the likelihoods of all possible pairs of their values.

We can drop the set notation with random variables.

$P\left(\left\{D\le 5\right\} \cap \left\{M\le 5\right\}\right)=P\left(D\le 5, M\le5\right)$

# Joint distribution of discrete random variables

## Joint probability mass function

To emphasize the random variables, we can write $p_{X,Y}(a,b)$.

Note that $X$ and $Y$ are defined on the same sample space, $\Omega$.

The joint probability mass function $p$ of two discrete random variables $X$ and $Y$ is the function $p:\mathbb{R}^2\to\left[0,1\right]$, defined by

$p\left(a,b\right) = P\left(X=a, Y=b\right)$ $\quad\text{for} -\infty<a,b<\infty.$

## Example: Rollice two dice

(Dekking et al. Section 9.1)

Let $S$ bet the sum of two fair dice rolls and $M$ be the maximum of the two.

Compute the following probabilities.

$P(S=7,M=5)$

Joint probility mass function p(s, m).
m
1 2 3 4 5 6
s
2 1/36 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 2/36 0 0 0 0
4 0 1/36 2/36 0 0 0
5 0 0 2/36 2/36 0 0
6 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36 0
7 0 0 0 2/36 2/36 2/36
8 0 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36
9 0 0 0 0 2/36 2/36
10 0 0 0 0 1/36 2/36
11 0 0 0 0 0 2/36
12 0 0 0 0 0 1/36

## Example: Rollice two dice

(Dekking et al. Section 9.1)

Let $S$ bet the sum of two fair dice rolls and $M$ be the maximum of the two.

Compute the following probabilities.

$P(S=7,M=5)$

$=\frac{2}{36}=\frac{1}{18}$

Joint probility mass function p(s, m).
m
1 2 3 4 5 6
s
2 1/36 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 2/36 0 0 0 0
4 0 1/36 2/36 0 0 0
5 0 0 2/36 2/36 0 0
6 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36 0
7 0 0 0 2/36 2/36 2/36
8 0 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36
9 0 0 0 0 2/36 2/36
10 0 0 0 0 1/36 2/36
11 0 0 0 0 0 2/36
12 0 0 0 0 0 1/36

## Example: Rollice two dice

(Dekking et al. Section 9.1)

Let $S$ bet the sum of two fair dice rolls and $M$ be the maximum of the two.

Compute the following probabilities.

$P(S=7)$

Joint probility mass function p(s, m).
m
1 2 3 4 5 6
s
2 1/36 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 2/36 0 0 0 0
4 0 1/36 2/36 0 0 0
5 0 0 2/36 2/36 0 0
6 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36 0
7 0 0 0 2/36 2/36 2/36
8 0 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36
9 0 0 0 0 2/36 2/36
10 0 0 0 0 1/36 2/36
11 0 0 0 0 0 2/36
12 0 0 0 0 0 1/36

## Example: Rollice two dice

(Dekking et al. Section 9.1)

Let $S$ bet the sum of two fair dice rolls and $M$ be the maximum of the two.

Compute the following probabilities.

$P(S=7)$ $=\frac{2}{36}+\frac{2}{36}+\frac{2}{36}$ $=\frac{1}{6}$

Joint probility mass function p(s, m).
m
1 2 3 4 5 6 $p_S(s)$
s
2 1/36 0 0 0 0 0 1/36
3 0 2/36 0 0 0 0 2/36
4 0 1/36 2/36 0 0 0 3/36
5 0 0 2/36 2/36 0 0 4/36
6 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36 0 5/36
7 0 0 0 2/36 2/36 2/36 6/36
8 0 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36 5/36
9 0 0 0 0 2/36 2/36 4/36
10 0 0 0 0 1/36 2/36 3/36
11 0 0 0 0 0 2/36 2/36
12 0 0 0 0 0 1/36 1/36

## Example: Rollice two dice

(Dekking et al. Section 9.1)

Let $S$ bet the sum of two fair dice rolls and $M$ be the maximum of the two.

Compute the following probabilities.

$P(M=m)$

Joint probility mass function p(s, m).
m
1 2 3 4 5 6 $p_S(s)$
s
2 1/36 0 0 0 0 0 1/36
3 0 2/36 0 0 0 0 2/36
4 0 1/36 2/36 0 0 0 3/36
5 0 0 2/36 2/36 0 0 4/36
6 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36 0 5/36
7 0 0 0 2/36 2/36 2/36 6/36
8 0 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36 5/36
9 0 0 0 0 2/36 2/36 4/36
10 0 0 0 0 1/36 2/36 3/36
11 0 0 0 0 0 2/36 2/36
12 0 0 0 0 0 1/36 1/36
$p_M(m)$ 1/36 3/36 5/36 7/36 9/36 11/36

## Marginal probability mass function

The relationship shows how we extract distributions of a subset of random variables that belong a larger set.

Marginal distribution is a distribution of a subset of random variables that belong to a larger set.

Let $X$ and $Y$ be two discrete random variables, with joint probability mass function $p_{X,Y}$. Then, the marginal probability mass function $p_X$ of $X$ can be computed as

$p_X(x)=\sum_{y}p_{X,Y}\left(x,y\right),\quad\text{and}$

the marignal probability mass function $p_Y$ of $Y$ can be computed as

$p_Y(y)=\sum_{x}p_{X,Y}\left(x,y\right).$

## Example: Quick exercise 9.2 from Dekking et al.

Consider random variables $X$ and $Y$ with the joint probability mass function shown on the right for some $\varepsilon > 0$.

Joint probility mass function, p(a, b).
b
0 1 $p_X(a)$
a
0 $1/4-\varepsilon$ $1/4+\varepsilon$ ...
1 $1/4+\varepsilon$ $1/4-\varepsilon$ ...
$p_Y(b)$ ... ...

## Example: Quick exercise 9.2 from Dekking et al.

Consider random variables $X$ and $Y$ with the joint probability mass function shown on the right for some $\varepsilon > 0$.

• The marginal probability masses are $1/2$ for all possible values.
• Can we retract the value of $\varepsilon$?

No. Combining the marginal distributions does NOT provide the full information about the joint distribution.

Joint probility mass function, p(a, b).
b
0 1 $p_X(a)$
a
0 $1/4-\varepsilon$ $1/4+\varepsilon$ $1/2$
1 $1/4+\varepsilon$ $1/4-\varepsilon$ $1/2$
$p_Y(b)$ $1/2$ $1/2$

# Joint cumulative distribution function

The joint cumulative distribution function $F$ of two random variables $X$ and $Y$ is the function $F:\mathbb{R}^2\to[0,1]$ defined by

$F\left(a,b\right)=P\left(X\le a, Y \le b\right)$ $\quad\text{for }-\infty<a,b<\infty.$

## Example: Rolling two dice

(Dekking et al. Section 9.1)

Let $S$ bet the sum of two fair dice rolls and $M$ be the maximum of the two.

$F_{S,M}(s,m)$

Joint probility mass function p(s, m).
m
1 2 3 4 5 6
s
2 1/36 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 2/36 0 0 0 0
4 0 1/36 2/36 0 0 0
5 0 0 2/36 2/36 0 0
6 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36 0
7 0 0 0 2/36 2/36 2/36
8 0 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36
9 0 0 0 0 2/36 2/36
10 0 0 0 0 1/36 2/36
11 0 0 0 0 0 2/36
12 0 0 0 0 0 1/36

## Example: Rolling two dice

$p_{S,M}(s,m)$

m
1 2 3 4 5 6
s
2 1/36 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 2/36 0 0 0 0
4 0 1/36 2/36 0 0 0
5 0 0 2/36 2/36 0 0
6 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36 0
7 0 0 0 2/36 2/36 2/36
8 0 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36
9 0 0 0 0 2/36 2/36
10 0 0 0 0 1/36 2/36
11 0 0 0 0 0 2/36
12 0 0 0 0 0 1/36

$F_{S,M}(s,m)$

m
1 2 3 4 5 6
s
2 1/36 1/36 1/36 1/36 1/36 1/36
3 1/36 3/36 3/36 3/36 3/36 3/36
4 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
5 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
6 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
7 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
8 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
9 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
10 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
11 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
12 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...

$\sum_{s=2}^6\sum_{m=1}^4p_{S,M}(s,m)$

$F_{S,M}(6,4)=\frac{13}{36}$

m
1 2 3 4 5 6
s
2 1/36 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 2/36 0 0 0 0
4 0 1/36 2/36 0 0 0
5 0 0 2/36 2/36 0 0
6 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36 0
7 0 0 0 2/36 2/36 2/36
8 0 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36
9 0 0 0 0 2/36 2/36
10 0 0 0 0 1/36 2/36
11 0 0 0 0 0 2/36
12 0 0 0 0 0 1/36
m
1 2 3 4 5 6
s
2 1/36 1/36 1/36 1/36 1/36 1/36
3 1/36 3/36 3/36 3/36 3/36 3/36
4 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
5 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
6 1/36 ... ... 13/36 ... ...
7 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
8 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
9 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
10 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
11 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...
12 1/36 ... ... ... ... ...

# Joint distribution of continuous random variables

## Joint cumulative distribution function

Similar to the case of a single random variable, joint cumulative distribution functions can describe pairs of discrete random variables and pairs of continuous random variables

The joint cumulative distribution function $F$ of two random variables $X$ and $Y$ is the function $F:\mathbb{R}^2\to[0,1]$ defined by

$F\left(a,b\right)=P\left(X\le a, Y \le b\right)$ $\quad\text{for }-\infty<a,b<\infty.$

## Example: A bus ride

From an airport, you can either take a bus or a taxi to get to your hotel. The takes $B$ minutes to your hotel where $B$ follows a distribution defined the cumulative distribution function $F_B$.

$F_B(t)=\begin{cases}1-\frac{15^2}{t^2} & t\ge 15 \\ 0 & t < 15\end{cases}$

The time until the next bus is $N\sim U(0,7)$. You decide to take the bus if it arrives within the next 5 minutes. Otherwise, you will take a taxi which takes 20 minutes. Let $T$ be the travel time to your hotel.

What is $F_{T,N}(20,5)$?

• $F_{T,N}(20,5)=P(T\le 20, N\le 5)$

Recall the multiplication rule for conditional probabilities.

• $\phantom{F_{T,N}}=P(T\le20|N\le 5)P(N\le5)$
• $\phantom{F_{T,N}}=P(B\le20)P(N\le5)$
• $\phantom{F_{T,N}}=\left(1-\frac{15^2}{20^2}\right)\frac{5}{7}$

## Joint probability density function

• Recall, we compute its integral which is the area under the function to compute a probability.

## Joint probability density function

• Recall, we compute its integral which is the area under the function to compute a probability.
• For joint distributions with two variables, we want a density function whose integral, or the volume under the surface, represents a probability.

## Joint probability density function

Random variables $X$ and $Y$ have a joint continuous distribution if for some function $f:\mathbb{R}^2\to\mathbb{R}$ and for all real numbers $a_1$, $a_2$, $b_1$, and $b_2$ with $a_1\le b_1$ and $a_2\le b_2$,

$P\left(a_1 \le X\le b_1, a_1\le Y\le b_2\right)=\int_{a_2}^{b_2}\int_{a_1}^{b_1} f\left(x,y\right) dx dy.$

The function $f$ has to satisfy

1. $f\left(x,y\right)\ge 0$ for all $x\in\mathbb{R}$ and $y\in\mathbb{R}$; and
2. $\int_{-\infty}^\infty\int_{-\infty}^\infty f\left(x,y\right) dxdy = 1$.

We call $f$ the joint probability density function of $X$ and $Y$.

## Example: A joint probability density function

Suppose $X$ and $Y$ have a joint continuous distribution with joint density

$f_{X,Y}\left(x,y\right)=\begin{cases}120 x^3 y & x\ge 0, y\ge 0, \\ & \quad x+y\le1 \\ 0 &\text{otherwise.}\end{cases}$

$f_{X,Y}(x,y)\ge 0$ for all $(x,y)\in\mathbb{R}^2$

$\int_{-\infty}^\infty\int_{-\infty}^\infty f_{X,Y}(x,y)dxdy =1$

• Compute $F_{X,Y}(1/2, 1/2)$ and $P(X\le 1/2)$.

$f_{X,Y}\left(x,y\right)=\begin{cases}120 x^3 y & x\ge 0, y\ge 0, \\ & \quad x+y\le1 \\ 0 &\text{otherwise.}\end{cases}$

$F_{X,Y}(1/2, 1/2)$

• $=\int_{-\infty}^{1/2}\int_{-\infty}^{1/2} f(x,y) dxdy$
• $=\int_{0}^{1/2}\int_{0}^{1/2} 120x^3y\ dxdy$
• $=\int_{0}^{1/2} 30\cdot \left(\frac{1}{2}\right)^4 \cdot y\ dy$
• $=15\cdot\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)^4\cdot\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)^2$
• $=\frac{15}{64}$

$f_{X,Y}\left(x,y\right)=\begin{cases}120 x^3 y & x\ge 0, y\ge 0, \\ & \quad x+y\le1 \\ 0 &\text{otherwise.}\end{cases}$

$P(X\le 1/2)$

• $=\int_{-\infty}^{1/2}\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x,y) \color{forestgreen}{dydx}$

The order of the integrals is exchangeable for probability density functions.

• $=\int_{0}^{1/2}\int_{0}^{1 - x} 120x^3y\ dydx$
• $=\int_{0}^{1/2} \color{DarkOrchid}{60\cdot x^3\cdot \left(1-x\right)^2}\ dx$
• $=\cdots=\frac{11}{32}$

$f_{X,Y}\left(x,y\right)=\begin{cases}120 x^3 y & x\ge 0, y\ge 0, \\ & \quad x+y\le1 \\ 0 &\text{otherwise.}\end{cases}$

$P(X\le 1/2)=\int_{0}^{1/2} \color{DarkOrchid}{60\cdot x^3\cdot \left(1-x\right)^2}\ dx$

$\color{DarkOrchid}{60\cdot x^3\cdot \left(1-x\right)^2}$ for $x\in[0,1]$ is the probability density function of $X$.

$f_X(x)=\begin{cases} \color{DarkOrchid}{60\cdot x^3\cdot \left(1-x\right)^2} & x \in [0,1] \\ 0 & \text{otherwise}\end{cases}$

## Marignal probability density function

Let $X$ and $Y$ have a joint continuous distribution, with joint density function $f_{X,Y}$.

Then, the marginal probability density function $f_X$ of $X$ satisfies

$f_X\left(x\right) = \int_{-\infty}^\infty f_{X,Y}\left(x,y\right) dy$

for all $x\in\mathbb{R}$ and the marginal probability density function $f_Y$ of $Y$ satisfies

$f_Y\left(y\right)=\int_{-\infty}^\infty f_{X,Y}\left(x,y\right)dx$

for all $y\in\mathbb{R}$.

## Marginal cumulative distribution function

$P\left(X\le a\right)=F\left(a,\infty\right)=\lim_{b\to\infty}F\left(a,b\right)$

$P\left(Y\le b\right)=F\left(\infty, b\right)=\lim_{a\to\infty}F\left(a,b\right)$

Marginal distribution is a distribution of a subset of random variables that belong to a larger set in both discrete and continuous cases.

Let $F$ be the joint cumulative distribution function of random variables $X$ and $Y$.

Then, the marginal cumulative distribution function of $X$ is given by

$F_X\left(a\right)=\lim_{b\to\infty}F\left(a,b\right)$

and the marginal cumulative distribution function of $Y$ is given by

$F_Y\left(b\right)=\lim_{a\to\infty}F\left(a,b\right).$

# Independence of random variables

## Independence

Recall for events $A$ and $B$,

• if $P(A)\cdot P(B) = P(A\cap B)$ then they are independent.

$P\left(\left\{X\in I_A\right\}\right)\cdot P\left(\left\{Y\in I_B\right\}\right)=P\left(\left\{X\in I_A\right\} \cap \left\{Y\in I_B\right\}\right)$

where $I_A$ and $I_B$ are intervals such that $A=\{X\in I_A\}$ and $B=\{Y\in I_B\}$.

For random variables $X$ and $Y$,

• if $F_X(x)F_Y(y)=F_{X,Y}(x,y)$ for all possible values of $x$ and $y$ then they are independent.

When $X$ and $Y$ are independent, $P\left(\left\{X\in I_A\right\}\right) P\left(\left\{Y\in I_B\right\}\right)=P\left(\left\{X\in I_A\right\} \cap \left\{Y\in I_B\right\}\right)$ is true for ALL $I_A$ and $I_B$.

## Independent random variables

The random variables $X$ and $Y$, with joint cumulative distribution function $F$, are independent if

$P\left(X\le x, Y\le y\right)=P\left(X\le x\right)\cdot P\left(Y\le y\right),$

that is,

$F\left(x,y\right)=F_X\left(x\right)\cdot F_Y\left(y\right)$

for all possible values $x$ and $y$. Random variables that are not independent are called dependent.

## Independent disrete random variables

$P\left(X\le x, Y\le y\right) = P\left(X\le x\right)P\left(Y\le y\right)$ for all possible values of $x$ and $y$ implies $P(X=x, Y=y)= P(X=x)P(Y=y)$ for all possible values of $x$ and $y$.

The discrete random variables $X$ and $Y$, with joint probability mass function $p$, are independent if $p(x,y)=p_X(x)p_Y(y)$ for all possible values of $x$ and $y$.

## Example: Rolling two dice

Are $S$ and $M$ independent?

• $p_S(6)p_M(4)=\frac{35}{{36^2}}\neq \frac{2}{36}=p_{S,M}(6,4)$
• $S$ and $M$ are dependent.

$p_{S,M}(s,m)$

m
1 2 3 4 5 6 $p_S(s)$
s
2 1/36 0 0 0 0 0 1/36
3 0 2/36 0 0 0 0 2/36
4 0 1/36 2/36 0 0 0 3/36
5 0 0 2/36 2/36 0 0 4/36
6 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36 0 5/36
7 0 0 0 2/36 2/36 2/36 6/36
8 0 0 0 1/36 2/36 2/36 5/36
9 0 0 0 0 2/36 2/36 4/36
10 0 0 0 0 1/36 2/36 3/36
11 0 0 0 0 0 2/36 2/36
12 0 0 0 0 0 1/36 1/36
$p_M(m)$ 1/36 3/36 5/36 7/36 9/36 11/36

## Example: Rolling two dice

Are $S$ and $M$ independent?

• $p_S(6)p_M(4)=\frac{35}{{36^2}}\neq \frac{2}{36}=p_{S,M}(6,4)$
• $S$ and $M$ are dependent.

You can also check using the cumulative distribution functions.

$F_{S,M}(s,m)$

m
1 2 3 4 5 6 $F_S(s)$
s
2 1/36 1/36 1/36 1/36 1/36 1/36 1/36
3 1/36 3/36 3/36 3/36 3/36 3/36 3/36
4 1/36 ... ... ... ... ... ...
5 1/36 ... ... ... ... ... ...
6 1/36 ... ... 13/36 ... ... ...
7 1/36 ... ... ... ... ... ...
8 1/36 ... ... ... ... ... ...
9 1/36 ... ... ... ... ... ...
10 1/36 ... ... ... ... ... ...
11 1/36 ... ... ... ... ... ...
12 1/36 ... ... ... ... ... ...
$F_M(m)$ 1/36 ... ... ... ... ... ...

## Example: Quick exercise 9.2 from Dekking et al.

If $X$ and $Y$ are independent, can we retract the value of $\varepsilon$?

If they are independent, $p_X(a)p_Y(b)=p(a,b)$ for $a\in\{0,1\}$ and $b\in\{a,b\}$.

• Yes, $\varepsilon = 0$.
Joint probility mass function, p(a, b).
b
0 1 $p_X(a)$
a
0 $1/4-\varepsilon$ $1/4+\varepsilon$ $1/2$
1 $1/4+\varepsilon$ $1/4-\varepsilon$ $1/2$
$p_Y(b)$ $1/2$ $1/2$

## Independent continuous random variables

$F\left(x, y\right) = F_X\left(x\right)F_Y\left(y\right)$ for all possible values of $x$ and $y$ implies $\frac{d}{dx}\frac{d}{dy} F\left(x, y\right) = \frac{d}{dx} F_X\left(x\right) \frac{d}{dy} F_Y\left(y\right)$ for all possible values of $x$ and $y$.

The continuous random variables $X$ and $Y$, with joint probability density function $f$, are independent if $f(x,y)=f_X(x)f_Y(y)$ for all possible values of $x$ and $y$.

## Example: A joint probability density function

Suppose $X$ and $Y$ have a joint continuous distribution with joint density

$f_{X,Y}\left(x,y\right)=\begin{cases}120 x^3 y & x\ge 0, y\ge 0, \\ & \quad x+y\le1 \\ 0 &\text{otherwise.}\end{cases}$

Are $X$ and $Y$ independent?

$f_X(x)=\begin{cases}60x^3(1-x)^2 & 0\le x \le 1 \\ 0 & \text{otherwise}\end{cases}$

• When $0\le y \le 1$,
$\phantom{=}f_Y(y)$
$= \int_0^{1-y} 120x^3ydx$
$= 30y(1-y)^4$.
• $f_X(x)f_Y(y)\neq f_{X,Y}(x,y)$ for $(x,y)$
that satisfy $x\ge 0$, $y\ge 0$, $x+y\le 1$.
• NO, they are not independent.

## Independence of more than two variables

For any number of random variables, $X_1$, $X_2$, …, $X_n$, they are pairwise independent if $X_j$ and $X_k$ are independent for all $j\neq k$, $1\le j,k \le n$.

For any number of variables, $X_1$, $X_2$, …, $X_n$, they are independent if $F\left(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n\right)=\prod_{i=1}^n F_{X_i}\left(x_i\right)$.

You can also write the definition with $p_{x_i}$ for discrete random variables with joint probability mass function $p$ or with $f_{x_i}$ for continuous random variables with joint density function $f$.

## Example: Maximum among independent $U(0,1)$

Let $X_1$, $X_2$, $X_3$, …, $X_n$ be independent and identically distributed $U(0,1)$ random variables. Let $X_{(n)}$ be the maximum value among them.

What is the cumulative distribution function of $X_{(n)}$? How about its probability density function?

$X_{(n)} \le x$ implies $X_i \le x$ for all $i=1,2,\ldots n$.

• $P\left(X_{(n)}\le x\right)$ $=P\left(X_1\le x, X_2\le x, \cdots, X_n\le x\right)$

$X_1$, $X_2$, … $X_n$ are independent.

• $=P(X_1\le x)P(X_2\le x)\cdots P(X_n\le x)$
• $=\begin{cases} 0 & x <0 \\ x^n & 0\le x \le 1 \\ 1 & x>0\end{cases}$

## Independence under transformation

Let $X_1$, $X_2$, …, $X_n$ be independent random variables. For each $i\in\left\{1,2,\ldots,n\right\}$, let $h_i:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ be a function and define the random variable

$Y_i=h_i\left(X_i\right).$

Then, $Y_1$, $Y_2$, …, $Y_n$ are also independent.

# R worksheet

## Install learnr and run R worksheet

1. Click here to install learnr on r.datatools.utoronto.ca

If you see an error, try:

2. Find rlesson07 from Files pane
3. Click Run Document

Other steps you may try:

1. Remove any .Rmd and .R files on the home directory of r.datatools.utoronto.ca
2. In RStudio,
1. Click Tools > Global Options
2. Uncheck “Restore most recently opened project at startup”
3. Run install.packages("learnr") in RStudio after the steps above or click here

# Summary

• Joint distributions of two or more random variables can be described using their joint cumulative distribution functions and joint probability mass functions or joint probability density functions.
• Joint distributions contain the information on the relationship between random variables which the marginal distributions of the individual random variables do not explain.
• Independent random variables each describe events that are independent of each other.

## Practice questions

Chapter 9, Dekking et al.